CONTENT-RELATED RESOURCES

  • Governing digital convergence: An issue paper on media development and Internet governance

    This issue paper is now a go-to document to examine the intersections between media development and Internet governance. Written on behalf of the Working Group on Media Development and Internet Governance, this document formulates a clear and concise agenda by outlining key issues relevant to the journalism support and media development community vis-à-vis Internet policy-making, development, and regulation, as well as providing recommendations for common priority areas of engagement. The document can be accessed here.

  • Artificial intelligence and algorithms

    A significant challenge for the current and future viability of journalism and media organizations is the implications of emerging technologies, such as artificial intelligence (AI), the Internet of things (IoT), “big data,” blockchain technologies, and more. Such technologies are already having profound implications on journalism, media, and access to information in general, as exemplified by how AI, big data, and bots were used in various democratic elections (such as by Cambridge Analytica) in 2016, 2017, and 2018 to influence the outcome by flooding voters with false or misleading information. New technologies such as AI are significantly shaping news and media production and dissemination, as well as challenging both the practice and value of journalists. Internet companies, social media platforms, and other are increasingly using AI, Internet bots, and various algorithms in content moderation and in ranking the order for personalized search results and social media news feeds, which is also presenting a new challenge to privacy and free expression. Moreover, the use of AI in content moderation on the Internet without human judgment or due process can have a negative impact on optimizing the role of media and journalism for fostering a robust, pluralistic public sphere and enhancing democratic debates. For more information and resources, see:

    • Algorithm Watch
    • Artificial​ ​Intelligence: Practice​ ​and Implications​ ​for Journalism (Tow Center for Journalism)
    • Artificial Intelligence: The promises and the Threats (UNESCO Courier)
    • Mixed Messages? The Limits of Automated Social Media Content Analysis
    • Privacy and Freedom of Expression in the Age of Artificial Intelligence (in collaboration with Privacy International)
    • Regulating social media content: Why AI alone cannot solve the problem (ARTICLE 19)
    • The Council of Europe’s expert committee on human rights dimensions of automated data processing and different forms of artificial intelligence (MSI-AUT)
  • CVE and hate speech

    Countering violent extremism (CVE) and hate speech are common topics in digital policy. Below are a list of relevant resources addressing it in policy and programming:

    • Bookmarks: A Manual for Combating Hate Speech Online Through Human Rights Education (Council of Europe)
    • Countering Online Hate Speech (UNESCO)
    • Countering Violent Extremism through Media and Communications Strategies (Partnership for Conflict, Crime and Security Research)
    • European Commission against Racism and Intolerance (ECRI) General Policy Recommendation No. 15 on Combating Hate Speech
    • Hate Speech: Key Concept Paper (Media, Conflict and Democratisation – MeCoDEM)
    • ‘Hate Speech’ Explained: A Toolkit (ARTICLE 19)
    • Hate Speech in the Media and Internet: A Case Study of the Kyrgyz Republic
    • Media Development and Countering Violent Extremism: An Uneasy Relationship, a Need for Dialogue (CIMA)
    • No Hate Speech Movement (Council of Europe)
    • Starting Points for Combating Hate Speech Online: Three Studies About Online Hate Speech and Ways to Address It
    • Youth and Violent Extremism on Social Media (UNESCO)
  • Cybersecurity toolkits

    In the digital age, journalism safety must also include cybersecurity measures. As a result, myriad organisations have produced toolkits and guides for journalists. These include:

    • Electronic Frontier Foundation (EFF) – Surveillance Self-defense (SSD): Tips, tools, and how-to’s for safer online communications
    • Frontline Defenders – Security-in-a-box: Digital security tools and tactics
    • Global Investigative Journalism Network (GIJN) – Digital security
    • Tactical Technology Collective (Tactical Tech) – Digital security & privacy
    • WAN-IFRA – Top cybersecurity tips and tools for journalists
    • We Live Security – Cybersecurity for journalists and the news media
  • Digital media literacy

    The importance of digital skills and media literacy (also known as media information literacy – MIL) has already been recognised by many Internet governance and development stakeholders, particularly in relation to education, democracy, access to information, and countering disinformation and misinformation. Stakeholders from across the Internet governance ecosystem recognise the importance of user capabilities (such as digital media literacy skills) as a core competency for the advantageous development of the Internet and enabling meaningful access. Digital media literacy includes topics such as but not limited to:

    • What it means to use digital media in a responsible way;
    • Understanding news cycles;
    • Analyzing the bias held by different media outlets;
    • Evaluating conflicts of interest and funding behind content producers;
    • Recognising misinformation or “deep fakes;” and
    • The ability to identify and evaluate the credibility of information.

     

    Additional references and resources include:

  • Disinformation and misinformation

    Disinformation and misinformation, also known as propaganda, is the preferred term for the widely overused term “fake news.” It relates to trust in media institutions, journalists, and reporting, and is hardly a new phenomenon. Myriad organisations and initiatives have been established to address disinformation, and multiple resources exist as well, including:

  • GDPR

    The European Union’s General Data Protection Regulation (GDPR) is a law on data protection and privacy that applies to all individuals within the EU and the European Economic Area (EEA), including both citizens and residents. It aims to simplify the regulatory environment for international business by unifying the regulation within the EU. Passed in 2016, GDPR went into effect on 25 May 2018, and brought with it a host of new measures that empower citizens and residents with control over their personal data, and it also addresses the export of personal data outside the EU. GDPR has set a standard internationally for the kinds of protections and rights it enables for citizens, and mandates that private sector companies and other entities operating within the EU provide data protection services, even if their headquarters are outside of the EU (referred to as extraterritorial applicability). If an organization or company fails to comply with GDPR rules, they can be fined up to 4% of annual global turnover or €20 Million (whichever is greater).

    GDPR codifies certain policies and privacy standards into law, such as but not limited to:

    • The need for clear consent and easily accessible terms and conditions.
    • Notification of privacy breaches or when data has been compromised.
    • The right of consumers (data subjects) to access and download their personal data, free of charge.
    • The right to data erasure (also known as the right to be forgotten).
    • Data portability, which is the right for a consumer to freely transfer their data from one service to another without penalty.
    • The right to privacy by design, which refers to creating and designing services handling personal data that incorporate privacy principles and provide safeguards to protect data.
  • Right to be Forgotten

    The so-called “Right to be Forgotten” (RTBF) is a highly nuanced legal principle that, within the European context, enables an individual to request personally identifiable information be scrubbed from content to render it less accessible (known as “erasure”), and/or have the content removed from a search engine index (known as “delisting”). Other forms include fully removing content from the Internet. While the concept emerged out of a European legal tradition that favors the privacy of non-public individuals, in practice it has led to the censorship of information relevant to the public interest. It has endangered press freedom by leading to the removal of news articles, and it has hindered media development by erasing content from the digital public record. For more information, see the following resources related to RTBF, archives, and more:

    • Access Now Position Paper: Understanding the “Right to be Forgotten” Globally
    • Background: The Right to be Forgotten in National and Regional Contexts (IFLA)
    • EU Data Protection Law: A “Right to be Forgotten?” (UK House of Lords)
    • Europe’s top court backs Germany: Murderers have no right to be forgotten (European Centre for Press & Media Freedom – ECPMF)
    • How the “Right to be Forgotten” Challenges Journalistic Principles (PDF)
    • IFLA Statement on the Right to be Forgotten
    • Information Not Found: The “Right to be Forgotten” as an Emerging Threat to Media Freedom in the Digital Age (CIMA)
    • Media Online Archives: A Source for Historical Research or a Threat to Privacy? (Helsińska Fundacja Praw Człowieka)
    • Mission creep: The expanding scope of the “right to be forgotten” (CIMA)
    • The Internet has become the external hard drive for our memories (Scientific American)
    • The “Right to be Forgotten” and Search Engine Liability (Brussels Privacy Hub)
    • The “Right to Be Forgotten” – Negotiating Public and Private Ordering in the European Union
    • The “Right to be Forgotten” – Remembering Freedom of Expression (ARTICLE 19)

     

    Legal resources:

    • Communiqué by Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe
      (OSCE) Representative on Freedom of the Media on ruling of the European Union Court of Justice
    • Google Spain SL and Google Inc. v Agencia Española de Protección de Datos (AEPD) and Mario Costeja González (2014)
    • Internet: Case-law of the European Court of Human Rights (ECtHR)
    • P8_TA-PROV(2018)0204 – Media Pluralism and Media Freedom in the European Union (European Parliament)
    • Recommendation CM/Rec(2018)2 of the Committee of Ministers to Member States on the Roles and Responsibilities of Internet Intermediaries (Council of Europe)
    • RTBF & GDPR
      • GDPR recitals: Your essential partners to understand and apply the GDPR
      • Right to erasure (ICO)
  • UN Special Rapporteur David Kaye reports

    The United Nations Special Rapporteur on the promotion and protection of the right to freedom of opinion and expression, David Kaye, produces frequent reports for the Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights (OHCHR) about issues related to media, digital rights, and security. These include:

    • Promotion and protection of the right to freedom of opinion
      and expression (as it relates to artificial intelligence) (A/73/348 – 2018) – available in all official UN languages
    • Report of the Special Rapporteur on the promotion and
      protection of the right to freedom of opinion and expression (A/HRC/38/352018) – available in all official UN languages
    • Report of the Special Rapporteur to the Human Rights Council on freedom of expression and the private sector in the digital age (A/HRC/32/38 – 2016) – available in Arabic, Chinese, English, French, Russian, and Spanish
    • Report of the Special Rapporteur to the Human Rights Council on the use of encryption and anonymity to exercise the rights to freedom of opinion and expression in the digital age (A/HRC/29/322015) – available in Arabic, Chinese, English, French, Russian, and Spanish

    Additional resources related to the special rapporteur’s work includes:

    • A guide to the UN’s special procedures, including the work of the special rapporteurs (IFEX)
    • Communications reports of special procedures (OHCHR)

CONFERENCES

  • Internet Freedom Festival

    Internet Freedom Festival (IFF) is an annual event held in Valencia, Spain, that gathers more than 1,400 activists, journalists, technologists, and human rights defenders from over 130 countries for a week of hands-on, multidisciplinary collaboration, sharing, and learning to promote freedom of expression, protection from digital threats, and expanded access to online spaces.

  • Mozilla Festival

    Mozilla Festival (MozFest) is an annual autumn gathering of technologists, activists, journalists, and others who work on collaborative projects related to the open Internet.

  • RightsCon

    The RightsCon Summit Series is a multi-stakeholder event that focuses on human rights in the digital age, which is hosted by Access Now, an international digital rights and advocacy organization.

  • UNESCO World Press Freedom Day

    The UNESCO World Press Freedom Day (WPFD) is an event that occurs annually on May 3, which focuses on celebrating and evaluating press freedom (both online and offline) around the world.

  • WSIS Forum

    The World Summit on the Information Society (WSIS) Forum is an annual event hosted each spring by the International Telecommunication Union (ITU) in Geneva, Switzerland, which is relevant to ICT for development (ICT4D). It facilitates the implementation of the WSIS Action Lines for advancing sustainable development.

ADDITIONAL RESOURCES

  • Capacity building programmes

    Many capacity building programmes and summer schools on Internet governance exist around the world. They include:

    • Afghan School on Internet Governance (AfSIG)
    • African School on Internet Governance (AfriSIG)
    • Annenberg-Oxford Media Policy Summer Institute (AnOx)
    • Armenian School on Internet Governance (ArmSIG)
    • Arusha Women School of Internet Governance (AruWSIG)
    • Asia Pacific School on Internet Governance (APSIG)
    • Balkan Investigative Reporting Network (BIRN) Summer School of Investigative Reporting
    • Balkan School of Internet Governance (BSIG)
    • Centre for Media Pluralism and Media Freedom (CMPF) Summer School for Journalists and Media Practitioners
    • European Summer School on Internet Governance (EuroSSIG)
    • India School on Internet Governance (InSIG)
    • Media and Digital Literacy Academy of Beirut (MDLAB)
    • Middle East and Adjoining Countries School on Internet Governance (MEACSIG)
    • Nepal School on Internet Governance (NpSIG)
    • North American School of Internet Governance (NASIG)
    • South School of Internet Governance (SSIG)
    • West African School of Internet Governance (WASIG)
  • Miscellaneous resources

    • CircleID – A blog covering various Internet developments, generally related to different aspects of Internet infrastructure
    • European Digital Rights Initiative’s (EDRi) guide to How The Internet Works
    • Explaining Internet Governance to Friends and Family: How to Improve Our Communication (report)
    • Global Internet Policy Observatory (GIPO)
    • Internet & Jurisdiction Policy Network (I&J)
    • The Broadband Commission on Sustainable Development – a joint International Telecommunication Union (ITU) and UNESCO venture that publishes an annual report titled “The State of Broadband
    • World Summit on the Information Society (WSIS) Tunis Agenda for the Information Society
  • Multi-stakeholder model

    A foundational ethos of Internet policy-making is the the multi-stakeholder model. It is an open, inclusive, bottom-up mechanism where all interested individuals and groups can collaborate together based on transparency and accountability to discuss common issues and generate robust, holistic solutions based on dialogue and consensus. For more information, see:

    • Exploring Multi-Stakeholder Internet Governance (EastWest Institute)
    • Best Practice Forum on Strengthening Multistakeholder Participation Mechanisms (IGF 2015)
    • Internet Governance – Why the Multistakeholder Approach Works (ISOC)
    • Multistakeholderism in Action: Analysing Indian Engagement at Global Internet Governance Institutions (CCG Delhi)
    • What if we all governed the Internet? Advancing multistakeholder participation in Internet governance (UNESCO)
    • Who Runs the Internet? The Global Multi-stakeholder Model of Internet Governance (CIGI)

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GFMD MEMBERS

  • ARTICLE 19

    The open flow of information has been key to the Internet’s transformative effect in modern society. In order to safeguard its benefits, the right to free expression must be defended when addressing issues of content and defining the technical management of the Internet’s architecture. That’s what ARTICLE 19 focuses on in this space. It is also one of the core members behind the Working Group on Internet Governance that was established at IGF 2017 in Geneva, Switzerland. A featured resource we recommend is:

     

    Some of their other resources include:

     

    They have many more resources as well regarding the following:

  • CIMA

    The Center for International Media Assistance (CIMA) is spearheading multiple initiatives to address how journalists and media organisations can participate more meaningfully in Internet policy-related discussions. They also produce relevant guides, briefs, reports, and other resources that focus on or relate to Internet policies impacting the media, democratisation, and development sectors.It is also one of the core members behind the Working Group on Internet Governance that was established at IGF 2017 in Geneva, Switzerland. Two featured resources we recommend are:

    • Getting Involved in Internet Governance: An Introductory Guide
    • Media Development in the Digital Age: Five Ways to Engage in Internet Governance (in collaboration with ARTICLE 19)
      • Also see the GFMD webinar about this resource

     

    Other examples include:

  • DW Akademie

    Deutsche Welle (DW) Akademie provides multiple Internet governance-related resources on their #MediaDev page. A featured resource we recommend is:

    • Guidebook on Internet Governance: Media Freedom in a Connected World

     

    Others include:

    • Audience Research in Media Development: Overview, Case Studies, and Lessons Learned
    • Dossier: Digital Rights, Privacy, & Security
    • Internet governance: Why you should care
    • Media Freedom Indices in the Media Development Context: How the Different Information Tools Can Be Used
    • #SpeakUp! Digital Inclusion Barometer
  • Free Press Unlimited

    Free Press Unlimited (FPU) has actively advocated for greater involvement of journalists and the media development community in Internet governance and policy discussions.

  • International Media Support

    International Media Support (IMS) is a Denmark-based NGO that has been significantly increased its involvement within the Internet governance ecosystem, such as within the IGF and ICANN. It is also one of the core members behind the Working Group on Internet Governance that was established at IGF 2017 in Geneva, Switzerland. Relevant resources include:

    • IMS publications
    • The battle for freedom of expression online: Where are the journalists?
  • IREX

    IREX engages in a host of activities, some of which relate to education, media literacy, and Internet freedom. They also publish a Media Sustainability Index (MSI). Other relevant resources include:

OTHER ORGANISATIONS AND INITIATIVES

  • Access Now

    Access Now is an international non-profit, human rights, public policy, and advocacy group dedicated to an open and free Internet. Access Now hosts the RightsCon Summit Series each year, and also initiated the #KeepItOn campaign against Internet shutdowns. They also produce reports and briefings, such as the following resource:

    • Proposals for Regulating Internet Apps and Services: Understanding the Digital Rights Impact of the “over-the-top” (OTT) Debate
  • Association for Progressive Communications

    The Association for Progressive Communications (APC) is an international network of organizations that was founded in 1990 to provide communication infrastructure, including Internet-based applications, to groups and individuals who work for peace, gender equality, human rights, protection of the environment, and sustainability. They have multiple publicationsand other resources relevant to journalists and media development organizations such as:

  • Best Bits

    Best Bits is a civil society network on Internet governance and Internet rights. It offers an open space where each group can present and advocate for the initiatives that they believe offer the best positive agenda for advancing broadly shared civil society interests in Internet governance. Participate by signing up for their mailing list.

  • Council of Europe

    The Council of Europe produces many relevant resources on Internet freedom, freedom of expression, algorithm transparency, and more. They also host specialised working groups, such as:

    • MSI-JOQ – Committee of Experts on Quality Journalism in the Digital Age
      • Draft recommendation on promoting a favourable environment for
        quality journalism in the digital age
      • Draft study on media and information literacy in the digital
        environment
    • MSI-AUT – Committee of Experts on Human Rights Dimensions of Automated Data Processing and Different Forms of Artificial Intelligence
  • Committee to Protect Journalists

    The Committee to Protect Journalists (CPJ) also advocates for Internet freedom.

  • DiploFoundation and GIP Digital Watch

    DiploFoundation is a non-profit foundation established by the governments of Malta and Switzerland. Diplo works to increase the role of small and developing states, and to improve global governance and international policy development. One of its initiatives, the GIP Digital Watch observatory, is a comprehensive Internet governance and digital policy observatory that provides monthly updates about digital policy as well as tracks issues and policy developments. Some of their resources include:

  • FoME

    The Forum for Media & Development (Forum Medien und Entwicklung – FoME) is a network of German institutions and individuals active in the field of media development cooperation. In addition to hosting an annual Symposium, they also feature many relevant resources and publications. You can also join their mailing list.

  • Freedom House

    Freedom House has multiple resources relevant to Internet freedom, including:

  • GigaNET

    The Global Internet Governance Academic Network (GigaNET) is an international association of academic researchers. Members include researchers from a wide range of disciplines and locations who are contributing to research, teaching, and engagement in local, regional, and international debates on Internet governance.

  • Global Partners Digital

    Global Partners Digital (GPD) is a social purpose company working to protect and promote human rights values online, and the governance processes that uphold and further these values. Their two main priorities are to grow the number of civil society groups engaging in the internet policy and governance arena, and to make governments, public authorities, international institutions, and businesses aware of the benefits of internet policies and governance processes that promote and protect human rights. Relevant resources include:

    • A Rights-respecting Model of Online Content Regulation by Platforms
    • Content regulation laws threaten our freedom of expression. We need a new approach
    • Framework for Multistakeholder Cyber Policy Development
    • GPD’s Organisational Development Framework
    • GPD’s response to David Kaye’s report on platform content regulation
    • How to Engage in Cyber Policy video series
    • Some thoughts on the updated UN Resolution on Human Rights and the Internet
    • Travel Guide to the Digital World: Cybersecurity Policy for Human Rights Defenders
  • ICANN

    The Internet Corporation for Assigned Names and Numbers (ICANN)
    (ICANN) is the organisation responsible for operating the Domain Name System (DNS), which is essentially the equivalent of the Internet’s phone book – holding the registry of all Internet Protocol (IP) addresses and domain names. It is governed by an international, multi-stakeholder community. ICANN holds three meetings each year, rotating among the different regions. For more information, see the following resources:

    • Apply for the ICANN Fellowship program if you’d like to be introduced to ICANN and want to take part in its work
    • ICANNWiki – A non-profit organisation dedicated to providing a community-developed wiki on ICANN and Internet governance
    • Generic Names Supporting Organization (GNSO) list of stakeholder groups and constituencies
    • GNSO document archive
    • GNSO Projects List – a compilation of all active and/or open projects within the GNSO
    • Join a group or constituency, such as the Non-Commercial Stakeholders’ Group (NCSG)
    • Join a working group – e.g., the Middle East and Adjoining Countries Strategy Working Group (MEAC-SWG)
    • Learn about how to write ICANN policy via the Noncommercial User’s Constituency’s (NCUC) Policy Writing Course
    • Participate in meetings remotely
    • Read the ICANN beginners guide
    • Submit a public comment
    • Visit ICANN Learn and take a free course
  • IEEE

    The Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE) is a professional body that primarily works at the physical (infrastructure) layer of the Internet. It develops international standards for modern telecommunications and ICT hardware, such as Wi-Fi and Bluetooth, and is a key area of engagement vis-à-vis strengthening Wi-Fi security standards.

  • International Federation of Library Associations and Institutions

    The International Federation of Library Associations and Institutions (IFLA) has multiple Internet governance-related resources, including:

  • International Telecommunication Union

    The International Telecommunication Union (ITU) is the United Nations body responsible for global radio spectrum and satellite orbit management. Working primarily at both the physical (infrastructure) and logical (protocols, standards, and applications) layers, it also develops certain technical standards that ensure networks and technologies seamlessly interconnect. Additionally, it works to improve access to ICTs to underserved communities worldwide. Key resources include:

    • Radio spectrum management
    • Reports from the Broadband Commission for Sustainable Development
  • Internet Engineering Task Force

    The Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF) is a key organization involved in the development of technical standards and protocols – the basic traffic rules of the Internet that define how information travels across the network, and who can connect to whom and to what content. Housed within the Internet Society, the work of IETF encompasses protocols that range from Internet Protocol (IP), the basic language that enables two devices to communicate, to applications like email.

  • Internet Governance Forum

    The Internet Governance Forum (IGF) is a multi-stakeholder dialogue platform held under the auspices of the United Nations. Established in 2006, it facilitates conversations and collaboration between stakeholders regarding Internet policy and emerging trends related to the Internet and information and communications technologies (ICTs) on equal footing, but does not issue recommendations. A series of national, subregional, and regional IGF initiatives (NRIs) feeds into the annual global IGF. Additional resources relevant to the IGF include:

     

    Also see: IGF Academy – it aims to foster freedom of expression on the Internet and inclusive and transparent national Internet governance and policy processes.

  • Internet Governance Project

    The Internet Governance Project (IGP) is a leading source of independent analysis of global Internet governance. It is comprised of a group of professors, postdoctoral researchers, and students hosted at the School of Public Policy at the Georgia Institute of Technology. For more information, see the IGP guide to Internet governance.

  • Internet Society

    The Internet Society (ISOC) is a non-profit organisation that was founded in 1992 to provide leadership in Internet-related standards, education, access, and policy. It features chapters all over the world, and ISOC members are involved in every aspect of Internet governance. Some of their resources include:

  • Mozilla

    Mozilla is a non-profit technology organisation that is also heavily invested in digital policy discussions and protecting human rights online. In addition to creating technology like code, apps, and the Firefox browser, Mozilla also engages in policy development, advocacy, and curates resources like the annual Internet Health Report and related toolkits.

  • openDemocracy

    Human Rights & The Internet (HRI) is a special section of openDemocracy focusing on various technology-related rights issues.

  • Open Internet for Democracy

    The Open Internet for Democracy project is a collaborative initiative by the Center for International Private Enterprise (CIPE), the National Democratic Institute (NDI), and the Center for International Media Assistance (CIMA). It is endeavoring to build a network of open Internet advocates who champion the democratic values and principles that should guide the future development of the Internet.

    • Apply to be an Open Internet Leader
    • Democratic Principles for an Open Internet
  • Reporters Without Borders

    Reporters Without Borders (RWB), or Reporters Sans Frontières (RSF), is based in Paris, France, and promotes and defends the freedom to be informed and to inform others throughout the world. They have multiple publications, and also produce the annual World Press Freedom Index. Other resources include:

    •  Internet Governance – The Position of Reporters Without Borders
  • Reuters Institute

    The Reuters Institute for the Study of Journalism at Oxford University publishes an annual Digital News Report, which tracks digital news consumption across countries, and provides timely data and analysis for industry, regulators, and academia.

  • UNESCO

    The United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) has multiple resources that pertain to Internet freedom, freedom of expression, and more. They include:

  • Web Foundation

    Established in 2009 by the inventor of the World Wide Web, Sir Tim Berners-Lee, the World Wide Web Foundation seeks to advance the open web as a public good and a basic right. They offer multiple resources such as research, as well as initiatives and projects including:

    •  Alliance for Affordable Internet (A4AI) – Working to make Internet access more affordable and inclusive
    • Open Data Barometer – It measures the prevalence and impact of open data initiatives around the world
    • Open Data Charter – Guides and supports governments as they implement shared open data principles, standards and best practices
    • Open Data Labs – Employs a combination of research, incubation, training, and engagement to ensure that open data is used to address practical problems in developing and emerging economies
    • Web Index – The first measure of the web’s contribution to social, economic, and political progress, studying 86 countries across the world
    • Web We Want – a global coalition working to defend, claim, and change the future of the Web
RESOURCES

CONTENT-RELATED RESOURCES

  • Governing digital convergence: An issue paper on media development and Internet governance

    This issue paper is now a go-to document to examine the intersections between media development and Internet governance. Written on behalf of the Working Group on Media Development and Internet Governance, this document formulates a clear and concise agenda by outlining key issues relevant to the journalism support and media development community vis-à-vis Internet policy-making, development, and regulation, as well as providing recommendations for common priority areas of engagement. The document can be accessed here.

  • Artificial intelligence and algorithms

    A significant challenge for the current and future viability of journalism and media organizations is the implications of emerging technologies, such as artificial intelligence (AI), the Internet of things (IoT), “big data,” blockchain technologies, and more. Such technologies are already having profound implications on journalism, media, and access to information in general, as exemplified by how AI, big data, and bots were used in various democratic elections (such as by Cambridge Analytica) in 2016, 2017, and 2018 to influence the outcome by flooding voters with false or misleading information. New technologies such as AI are significantly shaping news and media production and dissemination, as well as challenging both the practice and value of journalists. Internet companies, social media platforms, and other are increasingly using AI, Internet bots, and various algorithms in content moderation and in ranking the order for personalized search results and social media news feeds, which is also presenting a new challenge to privacy and free expression. Moreover, the use of AI in content moderation on the Internet without human judgment or due process can have a negative impact on optimizing the role of media and journalism for fostering a robust, pluralistic public sphere and enhancing democratic debates. For more information and resources, see:

    • Algorithm Watch
    • Artificial​ ​Intelligence: Practice​ ​and Implications​ ​for Journalism (Tow Center for Journalism)
    • Artificial Intelligence: The promises and the Threats (UNESCO Courier)
    • Mixed Messages? The Limits of Automated Social Media Content Analysis
    • Privacy and Freedom of Expression in the Age of Artificial Intelligence (in collaboration with Privacy International)
    • Regulating social media content: Why AI alone cannot solve the problem (ARTICLE 19)
    • The Council of Europe’s expert committee on human rights dimensions of automated data processing and different forms of artificial intelligence (MSI-AUT)
  • CVE and hate speech

    Countering violent extremism (CVE) and hate speech are common topics in digital policy. Below are a list of relevant resources addressing it in policy and programming:

    • Bookmarks: A Manual for Combating Hate Speech Online Through Human Rights Education (Council of Europe)
    • Countering Online Hate Speech (UNESCO)
    • Countering Violent Extremism through Media and Communications Strategies (Partnership for Conflict, Crime and Security Research)
    • European Commission against Racism and Intolerance (ECRI) General Policy Recommendation No. 15 on Combating Hate Speech
    • Hate Speech: Key Concept Paper (Media, Conflict and Democratisation – MeCoDEM)
    • ‘Hate Speech’ Explained: A Toolkit (ARTICLE 19)
    • Hate Speech in the Media and Internet: A Case Study of the Kyrgyz Republic
    • Media Development and Countering Violent Extremism: An Uneasy Relationship, a Need for Dialogue (CIMA)
    • No Hate Speech Movement (Council of Europe)
    • Starting Points for Combating Hate Speech Online: Three Studies About Online Hate Speech and Ways to Address It
    • Youth and Violent Extremism on Social Media (UNESCO)
  • Cybersecurity toolkits

    In the digital age, journalism safety must also include cybersecurity measures. As a result, myriad organisations have produced toolkits and guides for journalists. These include:

    • Electronic Frontier Foundation (EFF) – Surveillance Self-defense (SSD): Tips, tools, and how-to’s for safer online communications
    • Frontline Defenders – Security-in-a-box: Digital security tools and tactics
    • Global Investigative Journalism Network (GIJN) – Digital security
    • Tactical Technology Collective (Tactical Tech) – Digital security & privacy
    • WAN-IFRA – Top cybersecurity tips and tools for journalists
    • We Live Security – Cybersecurity for journalists and the news media
  • Digital media literacy

    The importance of digital skills and media literacy (also known as media information literacy – MIL) has already been recognised by many Internet governance and development stakeholders, particularly in relation to education, democracy, access to information, and countering disinformation and misinformation. Stakeholders from across the Internet governance ecosystem recognise the importance of user capabilities (such as digital media literacy skills) as a core competency for the advantageous development of the Internet and enabling meaningful access. Digital media literacy includes topics such as but not limited to:

    • What it means to use digital media in a responsible way;
    • Understanding news cycles;
    • Analyzing the bias held by different media outlets;
    • Evaluating conflicts of interest and funding behind content producers;
    • Recognising misinformation or “deep fakes;” and
    • The ability to identify and evaluate the credibility of information.

     

    Additional references and resources include:

  • Disinformation and misinformation

    Disinformation and misinformation, also known as propaganda, is the preferred term for the widely overused term “fake news.” It relates to trust in media institutions, journalists, and reporting, and is hardly a new phenomenon. Myriad organisations and initiatives have been established to address disinformation, and multiple resources exist as well, including:

  • GDPR

    The European Union’s General Data Protection Regulation (GDPR) is a law on data protection and privacy that applies to all individuals within the EU and the European Economic Area (EEA), including both citizens and residents. It aims to simplify the regulatory environment for international business by unifying the regulation within the EU. Passed in 2016, GDPR went into effect on 25 May 2018, and brought with it a host of new measures that empower citizens and residents with control over their personal data, and it also addresses the export of personal data outside the EU. GDPR has set a standard internationally for the kinds of protections and rights it enables for citizens, and mandates that private sector companies and other entities operating within the EU provide data protection services, even if their headquarters are outside of the EU (referred to as extraterritorial applicability). If an organization or company fails to comply with GDPR rules, they can be fined up to 4% of annual global turnover or €20 Million (whichever is greater).

    GDPR codifies certain policies and privacy standards into law, such as but not limited to:

    • The need for clear consent and easily accessible terms and conditions.
    • Notification of privacy breaches or when data has been compromised.
    • The right of consumers (data subjects) to access and download their personal data, free of charge.
    • The right to data erasure (also known as the right to be forgotten).
    • Data portability, which is the right for a consumer to freely transfer their data from one service to another without penalty.
    • The right to privacy by design, which refers to creating and designing services handling personal data that incorporate privacy principles and provide safeguards to protect data.
  • Right to be Forgotten

    The so-called “Right to be Forgotten” (RTBF) is a highly nuanced legal principle that, within the European context, enables an individual to request personally identifiable information be scrubbed from content to render it less accessible (known as “erasure”), and/or have the content removed from a search engine index (known as “delisting”). Other forms include fully removing content from the Internet. While the concept emerged out of a European legal tradition that favors the privacy of non-public individuals, in practice it has led to the censorship of information relevant to the public interest. It has endangered press freedom by leading to the removal of news articles, and it has hindered media development by erasing content from the digital public record. For more information, see the following resources related to RTBF, archives, and more:

    • Access Now Position Paper: Understanding the “Right to be Forgotten” Globally
    • Background: The Right to be Forgotten in National and Regional Contexts (IFLA)
    • EU Data Protection Law: A “Right to be Forgotten?” (UK House of Lords)
    • Europe’s top court backs Germany: Murderers have no right to be forgotten (European Centre for Press & Media Freedom – ECPMF)
    • How the “Right to be Forgotten” Challenges Journalistic Principles (PDF)
    • IFLA Statement on the Right to be Forgotten
    • Information Not Found: The “Right to be Forgotten” as an Emerging Threat to Media Freedom in the Digital Age (CIMA)
    • Media Online Archives: A Source for Historical Research or a Threat to Privacy? (Helsińska Fundacja Praw Człowieka)
    • Mission creep: The expanding scope of the “right to be forgotten” (CIMA)
    • The Internet has become the external hard drive for our memories (Scientific American)
    • The “Right to be Forgotten” and Search Engine Liability (Brussels Privacy Hub)
    • The “Right to Be Forgotten” – Negotiating Public and Private Ordering in the European Union
    • The “Right to be Forgotten” – Remembering Freedom of Expression (ARTICLE 19)

     

    Legal resources:

    • Communiqué by Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe
      (OSCE) Representative on Freedom of the Media on ruling of the European Union Court of Justice
    • Google Spain SL and Google Inc. v Agencia Española de Protección de Datos (AEPD) and Mario Costeja González (2014)
    • Internet: Case-law of the European Court of Human Rights (ECtHR)
    • P8_TA-PROV(2018)0204 – Media Pluralism and Media Freedom in the European Union (European Parliament)
    • Recommendation CM/Rec(2018)2 of the Committee of Ministers to Member States on the Roles and Responsibilities of Internet Intermediaries (Council of Europe)
    • RTBF & GDPR
      • GDPR recitals: Your essential partners to understand and apply the GDPR
      • Right to erasure (ICO)
  • UN Special Rapporteur David Kaye reports

    The United Nations Special Rapporteur on the promotion and protection of the right to freedom of opinion and expression, David Kaye, produces frequent reports for the Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights (OHCHR) about issues related to media, digital rights, and security. These include:

    • Promotion and protection of the right to freedom of opinion
      and expression (as it relates to artificial intelligence) (A/73/348 – 2018) – available in all official UN languages
    • Report of the Special Rapporteur on the promotion and
      protection of the right to freedom of opinion and expression (A/HRC/38/352018) – available in all official UN languages
    • Report of the Special Rapporteur to the Human Rights Council on freedom of expression and the private sector in the digital age (A/HRC/32/38 – 2016) – available in Arabic, Chinese, English, French, Russian, and Spanish
    • Report of the Special Rapporteur to the Human Rights Council on the use of encryption and anonymity to exercise the rights to freedom of opinion and expression in the digital age (A/HRC/29/322015) – available in Arabic, Chinese, English, French, Russian, and Spanish

    Additional resources related to the special rapporteur’s work includes:

    • A guide to the UN’s special procedures, including the work of the special rapporteurs (IFEX)
    • Communications reports of special procedures (OHCHR)

CONFERENCES

  • Internet Freedom Festival

    Internet Freedom Festival (IFF) is an annual event held in Valencia, Spain, that gathers more than 1,400 activists, journalists, technologists, and human rights defenders from over 130 countries for a week of hands-on, multidisciplinary collaboration, sharing, and learning to promote freedom of expression, protection from digital threats, and expanded access to online spaces.

  • Mozilla Festival

    Mozilla Festival (MozFest) is an annual autumn gathering of technologists, activists, journalists, and others who work on collaborative projects related to the open Internet.

  • RightsCon

    The RightsCon Summit Series is a multi-stakeholder event that focuses on human rights in the digital age, which is hosted by Access Now, an international digital rights and advocacy organization.

  • UNESCO World Press Freedom Day

    The UNESCO World Press Freedom Day (WPFD) is an event that occurs annually on May 3, which focuses on celebrating and evaluating press freedom (both online and offline) around the world.

  • WSIS Forum

    The World Summit on the Information Society (WSIS) Forum is an annual event hosted each spring by the International Telecommunication Union (ITU) in Geneva, Switzerland, which is relevant to ICT for development (ICT4D). It facilitates the implementation of the WSIS Action Lines for advancing sustainable development.

ADDITIONAL RESOURCES

  • Capacity building programmes

    Many capacity building programmes and summer schools on Internet governance exist around the world. They include:

    • Afghan School on Internet Governance (AfSIG)
    • African School on Internet Governance (AfriSIG)
    • Annenberg-Oxford Media Policy Summer Institute (AnOx)
    • Armenian School on Internet Governance (ArmSIG)
    • Arusha Women School of Internet Governance (AruWSIG)
    • Asia Pacific School on Internet Governance (APSIG)
    • Balkan Investigative Reporting Network (BIRN) Summer School of Investigative Reporting
    • Balkan School of Internet Governance (BSIG)
    • Centre for Media Pluralism and Media Freedom (CMPF) Summer School for Journalists and Media Practitioners
    • European Summer School on Internet Governance (EuroSSIG)
    • India School on Internet Governance (InSIG)
    • Media and Digital Literacy Academy of Beirut (MDLAB)
    • Middle East and Adjoining Countries School on Internet Governance (MEACSIG)
    • Nepal School on Internet Governance (NpSIG)
    • North American School of Internet Governance (NASIG)
    • South School of Internet Governance (SSIG)
    • West African School of Internet Governance (WASIG)
  • Miscellaneous resources

    • CircleID – A blog covering various Internet developments, generally related to different aspects of Internet infrastructure
    • European Digital Rights Initiative’s (EDRi) guide to How The Internet Works
    • Explaining Internet Governance to Friends and Family: How to Improve Our Communication (report)
    • Global Internet Policy Observatory (GIPO)
    • Internet & Jurisdiction Policy Network (I&J)
    • The Broadband Commission on Sustainable Development – a joint International Telecommunication Union (ITU) and UNESCO venture that publishes an annual report titled “The State of Broadband
    • World Summit on the Information Society (WSIS) Tunis Agenda for the Information Society
  • Multi-stakeholder model

    A foundational ethos of Internet policy-making is the the multi-stakeholder model. It is an open, inclusive, bottom-up mechanism where all interested individuals and groups can collaborate together based on transparency and accountability to discuss common issues and generate robust, holistic solutions based on dialogue and consensus. For more information, see:

    • Exploring Multi-Stakeholder Internet Governance (EastWest Institute)
    • Best Practice Forum on Strengthening Multistakeholder Participation Mechanisms (IGF 2015)
    • Internet Governance – Why the Multistakeholder Approach Works (ISOC)
    • Multistakeholderism in Action: Analysing Indian Engagement at Global Internet Governance Institutions (CCG Delhi)
    • What if we all governed the Internet? Advancing multistakeholder participation in Internet governance (UNESCO)
    • Who Runs the Internet? The Global Multi-stakeholder Model of Internet Governance (CIGI)

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UPDATES
ACTORS

GFMD MEMBERS

  • ARTICLE 19

    The open flow of information has been key to the Internet’s transformative effect in modern society. In order to safeguard its benefits, the right to free expression must be defended when addressing issues of content and defining the technical management of the Internet’s architecture. That’s what ARTICLE 19 focuses on in this space. It is also one of the core members behind the Working Group on Internet Governance that was established at IGF 2017 in Geneva, Switzerland. A featured resource we recommend is:

     

    Some of their other resources include:

     

    They have many more resources as well regarding the following:

  • CIMA

    The Center for International Media Assistance (CIMA) is spearheading multiple initiatives to address how journalists and media organisations can participate more meaningfully in Internet policy-related discussions. They also produce relevant guides, briefs, reports, and other resources that focus on or relate to Internet policies impacting the media, democratisation, and development sectors.It is also one of the core members behind the Working Group on Internet Governance that was established at IGF 2017 in Geneva, Switzerland. Two featured resources we recommend are:

    • Getting Involved in Internet Governance: An Introductory Guide
    • Media Development in the Digital Age: Five Ways to Engage in Internet Governance (in collaboration with ARTICLE 19)
      • Also see the GFMD webinar about this resource

     

    Other examples include:

  • DW Akademie

    Deutsche Welle (DW) Akademie provides multiple Internet governance-related resources on their #MediaDev page. A featured resource we recommend is:

    • Guidebook on Internet Governance: Media Freedom in a Connected World

     

    Others include:

    • Audience Research in Media Development: Overview, Case Studies, and Lessons Learned
    • Dossier: Digital Rights, Privacy, & Security
    • Internet governance: Why you should care
    • Media Freedom Indices in the Media Development Context: How the Different Information Tools Can Be Used
    • #SpeakUp! Digital Inclusion Barometer
  • Free Press Unlimited

    Free Press Unlimited (FPU) has actively advocated for greater involvement of journalists and the media development community in Internet governance and policy discussions.

  • International Media Support

    International Media Support (IMS) is a Denmark-based NGO that has been significantly increased its involvement within the Internet governance ecosystem, such as within the IGF and ICANN. It is also one of the core members behind the Working Group on Internet Governance that was established at IGF 2017 in Geneva, Switzerland. Relevant resources include:

    • IMS publications
    • The battle for freedom of expression online: Where are the journalists?
  • IREX

    IREX engages in a host of activities, some of which relate to education, media literacy, and Internet freedom. They also publish a Media Sustainability Index (MSI). Other relevant resources include:

OTHER ORGANISATIONS AND INITIATIVES

  • Access Now

    Access Now is an international non-profit, human rights, public policy, and advocacy group dedicated to an open and free Internet. Access Now hosts the RightsCon Summit Series each year, and also initiated the #KeepItOn campaign against Internet shutdowns. They also produce reports and briefings, such as the following resource:

    • Proposals for Regulating Internet Apps and Services: Understanding the Digital Rights Impact of the “over-the-top” (OTT) Debate
  • Association for Progressive Communications

    The Association for Progressive Communications (APC) is an international network of organizations that was founded in 1990 to provide communication infrastructure, including Internet-based applications, to groups and individuals who work for peace, gender equality, human rights, protection of the environment, and sustainability. They have multiple publicationsand other resources relevant to journalists and media development organizations such as:

  • Best Bits

    Best Bits is a civil society network on Internet governance and Internet rights. It offers an open space where each group can present and advocate for the initiatives that they believe offer the best positive agenda for advancing broadly shared civil society interests in Internet governance. Participate by signing up for their mailing list.

  • Council of Europe

    The Council of Europe produces many relevant resources on Internet freedom, freedom of expression, algorithm transparency, and more. They also host specialised working groups, such as:

    • MSI-JOQ – Committee of Experts on Quality Journalism in the Digital Age
      • Draft recommendation on promoting a favourable environment for
        quality journalism in the digital age
      • Draft study on media and information literacy in the digital
        environment
    • MSI-AUT – Committee of Experts on Human Rights Dimensions of Automated Data Processing and Different Forms of Artificial Intelligence
  • Committee to Protect Journalists

    The Committee to Protect Journalists (CPJ) also advocates for Internet freedom.

  • DiploFoundation and GIP Digital Watch

    DiploFoundation is a non-profit foundation established by the governments of Malta and Switzerland. Diplo works to increase the role of small and developing states, and to improve global governance and international policy development. One of its initiatives, the GIP Digital Watch observatory, is a comprehensive Internet governance and digital policy observatory that provides monthly updates about digital policy as well as tracks issues and policy developments. Some of their resources include:

  • FoME

    The Forum for Media & Development (Forum Medien und Entwicklung – FoME) is a network of German institutions and individuals active in the field of media development cooperation. In addition to hosting an annual Symposium, they also feature many relevant resources and publications. You can also join their mailing list.

  • Freedom House

    Freedom House has multiple resources relevant to Internet freedom, including:

  • GigaNET

    The Global Internet Governance Academic Network (GigaNET) is an international association of academic researchers. Members include researchers from a wide range of disciplines and locations who are contributing to research, teaching, and engagement in local, regional, and international debates on Internet governance.

  • Global Partners Digital

    Global Partners Digital (GPD) is a social purpose company working to protect and promote human rights values online, and the governance processes that uphold and further these values. Their two main priorities are to grow the number of civil society groups engaging in the internet policy and governance arena, and to make governments, public authorities, international institutions, and businesses aware of the benefits of internet policies and governance processes that promote and protect human rights. Relevant resources include:

    • A Rights-respecting Model of Online Content Regulation by Platforms
    • Content regulation laws threaten our freedom of expression. We need a new approach
    • Framework for Multistakeholder Cyber Policy Development
    • GPD’s Organisational Development Framework
    • GPD’s response to David Kaye’s report on platform content regulation
    • How to Engage in Cyber Policy video series
    • Some thoughts on the updated UN Resolution on Human Rights and the Internet
    • Travel Guide to the Digital World: Cybersecurity Policy for Human Rights Defenders
  • ICANN

    The Internet Corporation for Assigned Names and Numbers (ICANN)
    (ICANN) is the organisation responsible for operating the Domain Name System (DNS), which is essentially the equivalent of the Internet’s phone book – holding the registry of all Internet Protocol (IP) addresses and domain names. It is governed by an international, multi-stakeholder community. ICANN holds three meetings each year, rotating among the different regions. For more information, see the following resources:

    • Apply for the ICANN Fellowship program if you’d like to be introduced to ICANN and want to take part in its work
    • ICANNWiki – A non-profit organisation dedicated to providing a community-developed wiki on ICANN and Internet governance
    • Generic Names Supporting Organization (GNSO) list of stakeholder groups and constituencies
    • GNSO document archive
    • GNSO Projects List – a compilation of all active and/or open projects within the GNSO
    • Join a group or constituency, such as the Non-Commercial Stakeholders’ Group (NCSG)
    • Join a working group – e.g., the Middle East and Adjoining Countries Strategy Working Group (MEAC-SWG)
    • Learn about how to write ICANN policy via the Noncommercial User’s Constituency’s (NCUC) Policy Writing Course
    • Participate in meetings remotely
    • Read the ICANN beginners guide
    • Submit a public comment
    • Visit ICANN Learn and take a free course
  • IEEE

    The Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE) is a professional body that primarily works at the physical (infrastructure) layer of the Internet. It develops international standards for modern telecommunications and ICT hardware, such as Wi-Fi and Bluetooth, and is a key area of engagement vis-à-vis strengthening Wi-Fi security standards.

  • International Federation of Library Associations and Institutions

    The International Federation of Library Associations and Institutions (IFLA) has multiple Internet governance-related resources, including:

  • International Telecommunication Union

    The International Telecommunication Union (ITU) is the United Nations body responsible for global radio spectrum and satellite orbit management. Working primarily at both the physical (infrastructure) and logical (protocols, standards, and applications) layers, it also develops certain technical standards that ensure networks and technologies seamlessly interconnect. Additionally, it works to improve access to ICTs to underserved communities worldwide. Key resources include:

    • Radio spectrum management
    • Reports from the Broadband Commission for Sustainable Development
  • Internet Engineering Task Force

    The Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF) is a key organization involved in the development of technical standards and protocols – the basic traffic rules of the Internet that define how information travels across the network, and who can connect to whom and to what content. Housed within the Internet Society, the work of IETF encompasses protocols that range from Internet Protocol (IP), the basic language that enables two devices to communicate, to applications like email.

  • Internet Governance Forum

    The Internet Governance Forum (IGF) is a multi-stakeholder dialogue platform held under the auspices of the United Nations. Established in 2006, it facilitates conversations and collaboration between stakeholders regarding Internet policy and emerging trends related to the Internet and information and communications technologies (ICTs) on equal footing, but does not issue recommendations. A series of national, subregional, and regional IGF initiatives (NRIs) feeds into the annual global IGF. Additional resources relevant to the IGF include:

     

    Also see: IGF Academy – it aims to foster freedom of expression on the Internet and inclusive and transparent national Internet governance and policy processes.

  • Internet Governance Project

    The Internet Governance Project (IGP) is a leading source of independent analysis of global Internet governance. It is comprised of a group of professors, postdoctoral researchers, and students hosted at the School of Public Policy at the Georgia Institute of Technology. For more information, see the IGP guide to Internet governance.

  • Internet Society

    The Internet Society (ISOC) is a non-profit organisation that was founded in 1992 to provide leadership in Internet-related standards, education, access, and policy. It features chapters all over the world, and ISOC members are involved in every aspect of Internet governance. Some of their resources include:

  • Mozilla

    Mozilla is a non-profit technology organisation that is also heavily invested in digital policy discussions and protecting human rights online. In addition to creating technology like code, apps, and the Firefox browser, Mozilla also engages in policy development, advocacy, and curates resources like the annual Internet Health Report and related toolkits.

  • openDemocracy

    Human Rights & The Internet (HRI) is a special section of openDemocracy focusing on various technology-related rights issues.

  • Open Internet for Democracy

    The Open Internet for Democracy project is a collaborative initiative by the Center for International Private Enterprise (CIPE), the National Democratic Institute (NDI), and the Center for International Media Assistance (CIMA). It is endeavoring to build a network of open Internet advocates who champion the democratic values and principles that should guide the future development of the Internet.

    • Apply to be an Open Internet Leader
    • Democratic Principles for an Open Internet
  • Reporters Without Borders

    Reporters Without Borders (RWB), or Reporters Sans Frontières (RSF), is based in Paris, France, and promotes and defends the freedom to be informed and to inform others throughout the world. They have multiple publications, and also produce the annual World Press Freedom Index. Other resources include:

    •  Internet Governance – The Position of Reporters Without Borders
  • Reuters Institute

    The Reuters Institute for the Study of Journalism at Oxford University publishes an annual Digital News Report, which tracks digital news consumption across countries, and provides timely data and analysis for industry, regulators, and academia.

  • UNESCO

    The United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) has multiple resources that pertain to Internet freedom, freedom of expression, and more. They include:

  • Web Foundation

    Established in 2009 by the inventor of the World Wide Web, Sir Tim Berners-Lee, the World Wide Web Foundation seeks to advance the open web as a public good and a basic right. They offer multiple resources such as research, as well as initiatives and projects including:

    •  Alliance for Affordable Internet (A4AI) – Working to make Internet access more affordable and inclusive
    • Open Data Barometer – It measures the prevalence and impact of open data initiatives around the world
    • Open Data Charter – Guides and supports governments as they implement shared open data principles, standards and best practices
    • Open Data Labs – Employs a combination of research, incubation, training, and engagement to ensure that open data is used to address practical problems in developing and emerging economies
    • Web Index – The first measure of the web’s contribution to social, economic, and political progress, studying 86 countries across the world
    • Web We Want – a global coalition working to defend, claim, and change the future of the Web